About City

Honolulu, the vibrant epicenter of Hawaii, presents a unique blend of island charm and cosmopolitan buzz. As the state’s capital and largest city, it is nestled on the southeastern shore of the island of Oahu. Known for its breathtaking landscapes, rich cultural tapestry, and historical significance, Honolulu is a city that offers a dynamic experience for both residents and visitors.


Honolulu, the capital city of Hawaii, is the most populous city in the state. Located on the island of Oahu, it is the main gateway to the Hawaiian Islands and a major portal into the United States. The city is a hub for international business, military defense, as well as famously being host to a diverse variety of east-west and Pacific culture, cuisine, and traditions.


Coordinates: 21.3069° N, 157.8583° W


  • Total: 68.4 sq mi (177.2 km²)
  • Land: 60.5 sq mi (156.7 km²)
  • Water: 7.9 sq mi (20.5 km²)

Honolulu is situated on the southeast coast of the island of Oahu, stretching from Pearl Harbor to Makapu’u Point, encompassing many neighborhoods and districts. The city is backed by the Ko’olau Range and faces the Pacific Ocean, offering stunning landscapes and natural beauty.


Honolulu has a tropical semi-arid climate with a mostly dry summer season, due to a rain shadow effect. Temperatures vary little throughout the months, with hot and humid summers and warm, milder winters, and a slight decrease in humidity from June to October.


Established as the capital of the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1845, Honolulu became a key port for the sandalwood, whaling, and sugar industries. It was also a strategic military location and suffered the infamous attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese forces in 1941, which led to the United States’ entry into World War II.


Honolulu’s economy is diverse. Although tourism is the most significant contributor, bringing in millions of visitors each year, other sectors include military defense, research and development, and manufacturing. The city is home to the Pacific Command, the world’s largest military command.

Culture and Lifestyle

Cuisine: The local cuisine reflects the mix of cultures present in Hawaii, including Native Hawaiian, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, and Portuguese influences.

Arts and Entertainment: The city is rich in arts and culture, with numerous festivals, museums, theaters, and arts galleries.

Outdoor Activities: With its beautiful beaches, surfing, snorkeling, and hiking are popular among both locals and tourists.

Landmarks and Attractions

Waikiki Beach: Perhaps the most famous beach in the world, known for its golden sands and excellent surfing conditions.

Pearl Harbor: A National Historic Landmark, it includes the USS Arizona Memorial, the USS Missouri, and the Pacific Aviation Museum.

Diamond Head: An iconic volcanic tuff cone and a famous hiking spot with panoramic views of the coastline.

Iolani Palace: The only royal palace on US soil, once the residence of the Hawaiian monarchs.

Honolulu Museum of Art: The largest museum in the state with a collection of over 50,000 works.

Bishop Museum: The premier place to experience the history, arts, and culture of the Hawaiian people.


Honolulu is served by the Daniel K. Inouye International Airport (HNL), the main aviation gateway. Public transportation includes TheBus system and a rail transit line, which is under construction with plans for completion in the near future.


The city hosts the main campus of the University of Hawaii and numerous other institutions offering a wide range of educational opportunities.


With a diverse population, Honolulu is a melting pot of East Asian, Native Hawaiian, and various other Pacific Island cultures. This rich blend is reflected in the city’s unique social fabric, language, customs, and traditions.

Government and Infrastructure

Honolulu operates under a mayor-council system and is the administrative center for the state of Hawaii. The city and county are merged, meaning the jurisdiction covers the entirety of Oahu. It has a strong infrastructure, with ongoing investments in public transportation, such as the Honolulu Rail Transit project, which aims to alleviate traffic congestion.

Economy and Tourism

Tourism is a crucial part of Honolulu’s economy, with millions of visitors drawn to the city’s natural attractions, historical sites, and cultural events. Waikiki alone generates a significant portion of the state’s tourism revenue. Besides tourism, Honolulu is an important hub for international business and military defense. The city’s harbor, Pearl Harbor, is a central location for the U.S. Pacific Fleet.

Honolulu also hosts numerous conferences and events, contributing to its economy. The Hawaii Convention Center, with its distinctive Hawaiian design, is a premier venue for global gatherings.


The University of Hawaii at Manoa is the flagship campus of the University of Hawaii system and offers a wide range of undergraduate and graduate programs. The city’s educational system is bolstered by private institutions such as Chaminade University and Hawaii Pacific University, reflecting the city’s commitment to higher education and research.

Health Care

Honolulu is home to several major hospitals and research facilities, providing advanced medical care for the Pacific region. Facilities like The Queen’s Medical Center, which is the largest private hospital in Hawaii, and Kapi’olani Medical Center for Women and Children, are nationally recognized for their quality of care.

Arts and Entertainment

Honolulu’s art scene is vibrant, with venues like the Neal S. Blaisdell Center hosting concerts and events. The Honolulu Museum of Art and the Bishop Museum offer exhibits that showcase local and international art, as well as Hawaiian history and culture. For performing arts, the Hawaii Theatre and the Diamond Head Theatre present plays, musicals, and concerts.

Natural Beauty

The natural landscape of Honolulu is one of its most compelling features. Beyond the renowned beaches, the region offers hiking trails like the Manoa Falls Trail and Makapu’u Point Lighthouse Trail, providing opportunities to explore the lush scenery and volcanic terrain. The Hanauma Bay Nature Preserve is a protected marine ecosystem famous for snorkeling and observing diverse marine life.


Despite its beauty and rich culture, Honolulu faces challenges. The cost of living in Honolulu is high, driven by the expenses of housing and imported goods. Traffic congestion is a significant problem, which the city is addressing with the rail transit project. Additionally, environmental concerns, particularly the impact of tourism on natural resources and the threat of climate change to coastal areas, are ongoing issues.


Honolulu, as the capital city of Hawaii, is a vibrant and diverse metropolis. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a varied ethnic composition, which includes individuals of Asian, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and mixed-race backgrounds.

Population Size

Honolulu had an estimated population of around 350,000 within the city limits, making it the most populous city in Hawaii. When considering the entire metropolitan area, the number swells to over 950,000, which accounts for approximately 70% of the entire state’s population. The population density in the city is high, reflecting its status as a major urban center in the Pacific.

Age Distribution

Honolulu’s age distribution reflects a relatively youthful population with a median age slightly lower than the national average in the United States.

  • Children (0-14 years): This group represents a significant portion of the population, with Honolulu having many family-friendly communities and policies that support child development.
  • Young Adults (15-24 years): This demographic includes a significant number of students, as Honolulu is a center for higher education in the Pacific with institutions like the University of Hawaii at Manoa. There are also military personnel included in this age bracket due to the several military bases in the area.
  • Adults (25-64 years): The majority of Honolulu’s population falls within this age range. This working-age group is involved in various sectors including tourism, services, healthcare, education, and military defense.
  • Seniors (65 years and older): Honolulu has a growing senior population, thanks in part to its desirable climate and lifestyle, which attracts retirees. The city has various senior living communities and healthcare facilities catering to the needs of this age group.

The age distribution is also influenced by migration trends, with young adults and professionals attracted to the city’s job opportunities, lifestyle, and climate, and older adults often staying or moving to the city for retirement.

Languages Spoken

Honolulu is a linguistically diverse city, reflecting its multicultural population. While English is the primary language used in business, government, and education, the following languages are also commonly spoken:

  • Hawaiian: Although less commonly used than English, Hawaiian is an official language of the state and is taught in schools, spoken in cultural ceremonies, and increasingly promoted to preserve the native culture.
  • Tagalog: With a significant Filipino community, Tagalog (and other Filipino dialects) is one of the most spoken languages in Honolulu.
  • Japanese: Due to the high number of residents of Japanese ancestry and tourists from Japan, Japanese is widely spoken and understood in many areas, especially in the tourism-related sectors.
  • Ilocano: Another language from the Philippines, Ilocano is spoken among the Filipino community.
  • Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese): The Chinese community, although not as large as the Japanese or Filipino communities, contributes to the linguistic tapestry with Mandarin and Cantonese speakers.
  • Korean: The Korean language is also spoken in Honolulu, particularly in neighborhoods with Korean businesses and churches.
  • Spanish: As with the rest of the United States, Spanish is spoken by a segment of the Hispanic community in Honolulu.

Many Honolulu residents are bilingual, and the exposure to different languages is enhanced by the city’s role as a tourist destination and its diverse media outlets.


Education in Honolulu is characterized by a range of public and private institutions, including primary, secondary, and higher education facilities. The city’s education system is designed to cater to its diverse population, providing not only standard curriculums but also programs that embrace the unique cultural heritage of Hawaii.

Educational Institutions in Honolulu

Honolulu offers a variety of educational institutions, including public and private schools, as well as several colleges and universities that serve the city and the state of Hawaii.

Public Schools

Honolulu is served by the Hawaii Department of Education, which is unique in that it operates as a single statewide school district. The number of public schools varies slightly from year to year due to changes in population and policy, there were approximately:

  • Over 180 Public Schools: This includes elementary, middle, and high schools located throughout the Honolulu metro area.

Private Schools

In addition to public schools, Honolulu has a variety of private educational institutions. These schools often offer alternative curricula and may include religious education. The number of private schools in Honolulu is significant, and they include:

  • Nearly 100 Private Schools: These range from preparatory academies to religiously affiliated schools and include K-12 education.

Charter Schools

Honolulu also has a number of public charter schools which operate with a greater degree of autonomy than traditional public schools:

  • Charter Schools: These schools have more freedom to design curricula and are often smaller in size, providing alternative educational opportunities.

Higher Education

Honolulu is a hub for higher education in the Pacific, with several colleges and universities that attract local, mainland, and international students. Key institutions include:

  • University of Hawaii at Manoa: The flagship campus of the University of Hawaii system, offering a wide range of undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees.
  • Hawaii Pacific University: A private university that offers undergraduate and graduate degrees in various disciplines.
  • Chaminade University of Honolulu: A private Marianist university that provides undergraduate and graduate degree programs.
  • Kapi’olani Community College: Part of the University of Hawaii system, this community college offers two-year associate’s degrees and certificates.
  • Honolulu Community College: Another member of the University of Hawaii system, offering technical, vocational, and academic programs.

The total number of colleges and universities in Honolulu is around a dozen, including specialized institutions for subjects such as culinary arts and tropical agriculture.

Specialized Training and Vocational Schools

Additionally, Honolulu hosts a range of vocational and specialized training schools that cater to specific industries such as tourism, culinary arts, and healthcare. These institutions provide career-specific training and certifications that are critical to the local economy.

Educational Support and Research Institutions

Honolulu is also home to research institutions and think tanks that contribute to educational advancement and policy development. These institutions often partner with colleges and universities to conduct vital research in areas such as marine biology, volcanology, astronomy, and sustainable development.

Honolulu’s educational landscape is dynamic and offers a wide range of options to students of all ages and backgrounds. For the most up-to-date numbers and details about educational institutions in Honolulu, one should refer to the Hawaii State Department of Education, the Hawaii Association of Independent Schools, or the individual websites of the higher education institutions.

Educational Attainment Levels

Educational attainment levels in Honolulu typically reflect the diverse range of educational opportunities available in the city.The residents of Honolulu had relatively high levels of educational attainment compared to national averages.

Breakdown of Educational Attainment

  • High School Graduates: A significant majority of Honolulu’s adult population has graduated from high school. The graduation rate is typically above the national average, reflecting the city’s strong emphasis on primary and secondary education.
  • Some College, No Degree: Many residents have attended college or received vocational education but have not earned a degree. This reflects the trend of individuals who may enter the workforce before completing a traditional four-year degree.
  • Associate Degrees: The presence of community colleges like Kapi’olani Community College and Honolulu Community College contributes to a sizable portion of the population holding two-year degrees or certificates, especially in vocational fields.
  • Bachelor’s Degrees: Honolulu has a robust percentage of residents with a bachelor’s degree, owing to the presence of institutions like the University of Hawaii at Manoa and Hawaii Pacific University.
  • Graduate or Professional Degrees: The number of individuals with graduate or professional degrees is also notable, showcasing the city’s advanced educational resources and professional opportunities.

The educational attainment levels in Honolulu are bolstered by the city’s educational institutions, which provide a broad spectrum of programs and degrees.

Vocational and Adult Education

Vocational and adult education play an important role in Honolulu’s educational system, providing training and skills development for the workforce.

Vocational Education

  • Technical Institutes: These offer career-focused training in areas such as automotive technology, healthcare, culinary arts, and information technology.
  • Community Colleges: They provide vocational programs and certificates in skilled trades, business, tourism, and other fields crucial to the local economy.

Adult Education

  • Adult Education Centers: These centers offer courses for adults seeking to complete their high school education, improve literacy skills, learn English as a second language, or gain citizenship skills.
  • Workforce Development Programs: Such programs are designed to help workers acquire new skills or update existing ones, often in response to changing job market demands.
  • Continuing Education: Offered by colleges and universities, these programs cater to working professionals looking to further their education without pursuing full-time degrees.

Nontraditional and Community-Based Education

  • Community Programs: Nonprofit organizations and community groups often offer workshops and classes on practical skills, cultural enrichment, and personal development.
  • Online Education: With the rise of digital platforms, many institutions in Honolulu offer online courses and degree programs to accommodate nontraditional students and working professionals.

Educational attainment levels and the availability of vocational and adult education programs are key factors in Honolulu’s ability to adapt to the evolving economic landscape and the needs of its population. For up-to-date statistics and information on educational attainment and adult education opportunities, sources such as the U.S. Census Bureau, Hawaii State Department of Education, and individual educational institutions should be consulted.

Libraries in Honolulu

Libraries play a crucial role in the educational and cultural life of Honolulu, providing residents with access to information, literature, and a variety of services. Here’s an overview of the libraries you can find in the city:

Public Libraries

Hawaii State Public Library System (HSPLS)

The HSPLS serves as the statewide library system for Hawaii and is headquartered in Honolulu. Within this system, there are several branches scattered throughout the city and the island of Oahu. These public libraries offer a range of services, including:

  • Lending of books, e-books, audiobooks, and magazines
  • Public access computers and internet access
  • Educational programs for children, teens, and adults
  • Cultural events and workshops

Specialized Collections

Some branches may have specialized collections focusing on Hawaiian culture, local history, and genealogy, reflecting the unique heritage of the region.

Academic Libraries

University of Hawaii at Manoa Libraries

This includes the main Hamilton Library and several specialized collections and departmental libraries. These libraries serve the students and faculty of the University of Hawaii system but are often accessible to the public for research purposes.

Hawaii Pacific University Libraries

HPU libraries support their students and faculty and may also extend certain privileges to the community.

Private and Special Libraries

Bishop Museum Library and Archives

Holding extensive collections of Hawaiian and Pacific artifacts, the library and archives at the Bishop Museum are a resource for researchers interested in the natural and cultural history of the region.

The Hawaii State Archives

This institution provides access to government records and historical documents important to the study of Hawaii’s history and governance.

Library Services

Public and academic libraries in Honolulu offer a wide range of services beyond lending materials, such as:

  • Research assistance and reference services
  • Educational and literacy programs
  • Digital media labs and makerspaces
  • Language learning resources
  • Community meeting spaces

Libraries in Honolulu serve as community hubs, fostering education, providing access to technology, and supporting lifelong learning. They adapt to the needs of their communities, offering digital resources, online catalogs, and streaming services to ensure that library resources are as accessible as possible.


Honolulu, as the capital city of Hawaii, offers a comprehensive range of healthcare services, including several major hospitals and numerous clinics providing both general and specialized care. Here’s an overview of the healthcare landscape in Honolulu:

Mental Health Resources in Honolulu

  1. Hawaii Pacific Health – Straub Medical Center – Psychiatry & Behavioral Health

    • Services: Offers comprehensive mental health services including counseling, therapy, and psychiatric services.
    • Website: Straub Health
  2. Kaiser Permanente Behavioral Health Services

    • Services: Provides a range of mental health services for Kaiser Permanente members, including individual, family, and group therapy.
    • Website: Kaiser Permanente Hawaii
  3. The Queen’s Medical Center – Outpatient Mental Health Clinic

    • Services: Offers outpatient services for a variety of mental health conditions, including counseling and psychiatric medication management.
    • Website: Queen’s Medical Center
  4. Department of Veterans Affairs Pacific Islands Health Care System

    • Services: Provides mental health services to veterans, including counseling, PTSD treatment, and substance abuse programs.
    • Website: VA Pacific Islands
  5. Child & Family Service

    • Services: Offers mental health services focused on children and families, including supportive counseling and intervention services.
    • Website: Child & Family Service

Dentists in Honolulu

  1. Hawaii Family Dental – Honolulu

    • Services: Full-service dental care including cleanings, exams, fillings, crowns, and emergency dental services.
    • Website: Hawaii Family Dental
  2. Aloha Dental Associates

    • Services: Offers general dentistry, cosmetic dentistry, and restorative dental treatments.
    • Website: Aloha Dental
  3. Diamond Head Dental Care

    • Services: Provides a wide range of dental services from preventive care to cosmetic and restorative procedures.
    • Website: Diamond Head Dental Care
  4. Honolulu Smile Design

    • Services: General, cosmetic, and implant dentistry services are available.
    • Website: Honolulu Smile Design
  5. Pacific Dental & Implant Solutions

Women’s Health Centers in Honolulu

  1. Kapi’olani Medical Center for Women & Children

    • Services: Comprehensive women’s health services including maternity care, gynecology, breast health, and more.
    • Website: Kapi’olani Medical Center
  2. Queen’s Women’s Health Center

  3. Kaiser Permanente Women’s Health Services

    • Services: Offers a full spectrum of women’s health services for Kaiser Permanente members, including obstetrics and gynecology.
    • Website: Kaiser Permanente Women’s Health
  4. University Women’s Health Specialists – UH Manoa

  5. Straub Medical Center – Women’s Health

    • Services: Offers a comprehensive range of healthcare services for women at all stages of life.
    • Website: Straub Women’s Health

Emergency Services in Honolulu

  1. The Queen’s Medical Center – Emergency Department

    • Services: Provides 24-hour comprehensive emergency medical services and is a major trauma center in Hawaii.
    • Website: Queen’s Emergency
  2. Kuakini Medical Center – Emergency Services

    • Services: Offers emergency care services, with a focus on the prompt treatment of acute illness and injuries.
    • Website: Kuakini Emergency Services
  3. Kaiser Permanente Moanalua Medical Center – Emergency Department

  4. Pali Momi Medical Center – Emergency Services

  5. Straub Medical Center – Emergency Services

    • Services: Provides emergency care with a focus on heart health, orthopedics, and stroke care.
    • Website: Straub Emergency Services

Family Medicine Providers in Honolulu

  1. Straub Medical Center – Family Medicine

    • Services: Offers comprehensive care for individuals and families, including preventive medicine, chronic disease management, and acute care.
    • Website: Straub Family Medicine
  2. Hawaii Pacific Health – Family Medicine

    • Services: Provides primary care services for patients of all ages, including wellness visits and treatment of everyday illnesses and injuries.
    • Website: Hawaii Pacific Health Family Medicine
  3. The Queen’s Medical Center – Primary Care Clinic

    • Services: Provides a full range of family medicine services, from preventive care to management of chronic conditions.
    • Website: Queen’s Primary Care
  4. University Health Partners of Hawaii – Family Medicine

  5. Kaiser Permanente Honolulu Medical Office – Family Medicine

    • Services: Provides family medicine services to Kaiser Permanente members, including preventative care and chronic disease management.
    • Website: Kaiser Permanente Family Medicine

Pediatric Care in Honolulu

  1. Kapi’olani Medical Center for Women & Children – Pediatric Services

    • Services: Specializes in providing comprehensive pediatric care, including general and specialized services, to children from birth through adolescence.
    • Website: Kapi’olani Pediatric Services
  2. The Queen’s Medical Center – Pediatrics

    • Services: Offers a broad range of pediatric services, including preventive health care, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic diseases.
    • Website: Queen’s Pediatrics
  3. Straub Medical Center – Pediatrics

    • Services: Provides pediatric care, including routine checkups, vaccinations, and treatment for illnesses and injuries.
    • Website: Straub Pediatrics
  4. Hawaii Pacific Health – Pediatric Care

    • Services: Offers a network of pediatricians to provide healthcare for children, including primary care and specialty services.
    • Website: Hawaii Pacific Health Pediatrics
  5. Kaiser Permanente – Pediatric Services

    • Services: Delivers a full range of pediatric care for Kaiser Permanente members, including well-child care, immunizations, and specialist referrals.
    • Website: [Kaiser Perman### Pediatric Care in Honolulu
  6. Kapi’olani Medical Center for Women & Children – Pediatric Services

    • Services: Specializes in providing comprehensive pediatric care, including general and specialized services, to children from birth through adolescence.
    • Website: Kapi’olani Pediatric Services
  7. The Queen’s Medical Center – Pediatrics

    • Services: Offers a broad range of pediatric services, including preventive health care, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic diseases.
    • Website: Queen’s Pediatrics
  8. Straub Medical Center – Pediatrics

    • Services: Provides pediatric care, including routine checkups, vaccinations, and treatment for illnesses and injuries.
    • Website: Straub Pediatrics
  9. Hawaii Pacific Health – Pediatric Care

    • Services: Offers a network of pediatricians to provide healthcare for children, including primary care and specialty services.
    • Website: Hawaii Pacific Health Pediatrics
  10. Kaiser Permanente – Pediatric Services

    • Services: Delivers a full range of pediatric care for Kaiser Permanente members, including well-child care, immunizations, and specialist referrals.
    • Website: Kaiser Permanente Pediatrics

Eye Care Services in Honolulu

  1. The Retina Center at Pali Momi

    • Services: Specializes in diseases and surgery of the retina and vitreous, offering advanced eye care and treatments.
    • Website: The Retina Center at Pali Momi
  2. Hawaii Vision Clinic

    • Services: Provides comprehensive eye care services including routine eye exams, glasses, contact lenses, and various ocular surgeries.
    • Website: Hawaii Vision Clinic
  3. Aloha Laser Vision

    • Services: Offers advanced vision correction procedures including LASIK and cataract surgery, along with general eye care.
    • Website: Aloha Laser Vision
  4. Honolulu Eye Clinic

    • Services: Comprehensive eye care for all ages, including pediatric ophthalmology, strabismus, LASIK, and cataract surgery.
    • Website: Honolulu Eye Clinic
  5. EyeSight Hawaii

    • Services: Specializes in vision correction procedures as well as general ophthalmology services and treatments for a range of eye conditions.
    • Website: EyeSight Hawaii

Physical Therapy Providers in Honolulu

  1. Fukuji & Lum Physical Therapy Associates

    • Services: Offers a variety of therapeutic services, including orthopedic, neurological, and aquatic therapy.
    • Website: Fukuji & Lum Physical Therapy
  2. Therapeutic Associates Queen’s Island Urgent Care – Physical Therapy

    • Services: Provides physical therapy services focusing on sports medicine, injury prevention, post-operative care, and general orthopedics.
    • Website: Therapeutic Associates
  3. Rehabilitation Hospital of the Pacific – Physical Therapy

    • Services: Offers comprehensive rehabilitation services including physical therapy for recovery from injury, surgery, and other physical ailments.
    • Website: Rehab Hospital of the Pacific
  4. OrthoSport Hawaii Physical Therapy & Aquatics

    • Services: Specializes in both land-based and aquatic-based physical therapy to treat a variety of conditions.
    • Website: OrthoSport Hawaii
  5. Holistic Physical Therapy Hawaii

    • Services: Provides a holistic approach to physical therapy, integrating traditional and alternative treatments to promote healing and wellness.
    • Website: Holistic Physical Therapy Hawaii


Honolulu, the capital city of Hawaii, is located on the island of Oahu’s south shore and is the gateway to the U.S. island chain. Its history is a fascinating blend of native Hawaiian culture, European exploration, American influence, and Asian immigration. Here are some key events and periods in the history of Honolulu:

History of Honolulu from 1999 to 2020

The 21st Century and Development

  • Early 2000s: Honolulu continued to grow as a tourist destination with Waikiki undergoing numerous revitalizations. Infrastructure improvements and real estate development were significant themes during this period.

  • September 11, 2001: The 9/11 attacks had a global impact, and Honolulu was no exception. Tourism, a major economic driver for the city, suffered a temporary decline due to the downturn in air travel.

  • Rail Transit Project: In 2005, the City and County of Honolulu proposed a fixed rail transit line. This became a controversial topic due to its high cost and impact on the community and environment. Construction began in 2011.

  • Economic Recession: The global financial crisis of 2007–2008 impacted Honolulu, leading to a decline in tourism and real estate, but the city managed to recover over the following years.

  • Barack Obama’s Presidency: Honolulu gained heightened visibility from 2009 to 2017 as the birthplace of the 44th President of the United States, Barack Obama, which also led to an increase in tourism.

  • Homelessness and Housing Issues: As in many U.S. cities, homelessness and affordable housing became significant issues in Honolulu, leading to new policies and initiatives.

  • COVID-19 Pandemic: In early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic severely affected Honolulu. The city faced lockdowns, and the tourism industry came to a near standstill, significantly impacting the local economy.

History of Honolulu from 1980 to 1998

Economic Growth and Challenges

  • 1980s Economic Boom: The 1980s were marked by a boom in real estate and construction in Honolulu, with Japanese investment playing a significant role in the city’s development.

  • Aloha Airlines Flight 243: On April 28, 1988, Aloha Airlines Flight 243 suffered explosive decompression in flight but managed to land safely in Honolulu. The incident led to changes in aviation safety regulations.

  • Hurricane Iniki: In 1992, Hurricane Iniki hit Hawaii, causing significant damage to the islands of Kauai and Oahu. Honolulu experienced strong winds and heavy rains, which led to widespread power outages and damage.

  • End of the Cold War: The end of the Cold War brought changes to Honolulu’s military importance, although it remains a critical strategic and military hub in the Pacific.

Growing Asian Influence

  • Immigration Trends: The city continued to see a rise in immigration from various Asian countries, which further diversified Honolulu’s cultural landscape.

History of Honolulu from 1960 to 1979

Statehood and Development

  • Statehood: In 1959, Hawaii became the 50th state of the United States, and Honolulu was named the state capital. The event is celebrated annually on the third Friday in August as Statehood Day.

  • Vietnam War: Throughout the 1960s and into the 1970s, Honolulu served as a critical stopover and R&R destination for U.S. military personnel involved in the Vietnam War.

  • Hawaiian Renaissance: The 1970s saw the Hawaiian Renaissance, a cultural revival of Hawaiian language, dance, music, and other native practices. This cultural movement reaffirmed Honolulu’s identity as a city steeped in native Hawaiian tradition.

Environmental Awareness and Preservation

  • Environmental Preservation: In the 1970s, a growing environmental movement began to influence local policies to preserve Honolulu’s natural beauty and resources, leading to the establishment of protected areas and parks.

  • H-3 Freeway Controversy: Construction of the Interstate H-3 freeway connecting Honolulu with the windward side of the island sparked protests due to environmental concerns and its impact on sacred Hawaiian sites. The freeway was eventually completed in the 1990s.

History of Honolulu from 1930 to 1959

The Great Depression and Military Buildup

  • Great Depression: The 1930s global economic crisis impacted Honolulu, with sugar and pineapple exports declining. Tourism also suffered, but the construction of iconic hotels like the Royal Hawaiian Hotel in 1927 provided some jobs.

  • Pearl Harbor Attack: The most significant event in Honolulu’s modern history occurred on December 7, 1941, when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, leading the United States to enter World War II. This dramatically changed Honolulu, as it became a focal point for the Pacific War effort.

  • Martial Law: Following the attack, Hawaii was placed under martial law, and Honolulu experienced significant military buildup and population growth due to the influx of service members and workers.

  • Post-World War II: After the war, Honolulu’s economy shifted towards tourism, which became the cornerstone of its economy. The city modernized and expanded rapidly during the 1950s.

  • Statehood: In 1959, Hawaii became the 50th state of the United States. Honolulu, as the capital of the new state, entered a new era of political and economic development.

History of Honolulu from 1900 to 1928

Annexation and Growth

  • Hawaiian Annexation: In 1900, two years after the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Hawaii was officially annexed by the United States. Honolulu, as the principal port and commercial center of the islands, saw increased economic activity.

  • Hawaii Organic Act: The same year, the Hawaii Organic Act was signed, establishing Hawaii as a formal U.S. territory and Honolulu as its capital.

  • Military Presence: The U.S. military began to establish a more substantial presence in Honolulu, with Pearl Harbor being developed as a naval base, which would later play a crucial role in World War II.

  • Pan-Pacific Exposition: In 1920, Honolulu hosted a Pan-Pacific Exposition to promote cultural understanding and economic cooperation among Pacific Rim countries, showcasing its growing importance as a Pacific hub.

Natural Disasters and Public Health

  • Molasses Spill: In 1919, a large molasses spill occurred in Honolulu harbor, creating an environmental disaster that took years to clean up.

  • Public Health: Honolulu faced several public health challenges, including outbreaks of bubonic plague in the early 1900s, leading to significant sanitation and health infrastructure improvements.

History of Honolulu from 1850 to 1899

Monarchy and Overthrow

  • King Kamehameha III Moves Capital: In 1850, King Kamehameha III officially moved the capital of the Kingdom of Hawaii from Lahaina to Honolulu, recognizing its strategic importance as a trade and diplomatic center.

  • Kalakaua’s Reign: King Kalakaua, who reigned from 1874 to 1891, was known for his efforts to modernize the Hawaiian Kingdom. During his reign, Honolulu saw the introduction of electricity, telephones, and other modern conveniences.

  • Bayonet Constitution: In 1887, the Bayonet Constitution was forced upon King Kalakaua by a group of businessmen and lawyers, effectively reducing the monarchy’s power and increasing the influence of American and European interests in Honolulu’s governance.

  • The overthrow of the Monarchy: Queen Liliʻuokalani, Kalakaua’s successor, attempted to restore the monarchy’s authority but was overthrown in 1893 by a group of American and European businessmen, with the support of the U.S. military’s presence in Honolulu.

  • Republic of Hawaii: In 1894, the Republic of Hawaii was established with Honolulu as its capital. This interim government lasted until the annexation by the United States in 1898.

History of Honolulu Before 1850

Ancient Polynesian Settlement

  • Native Hawaiian Culture: Before European contact, the area known today as Honolulu was inhabited by Native Hawaiians. It was not a major settlement area due to its dry environment and limited fresh water sources.

  • Political and Religious Hub: With the rise of the Kona district as the political and religious hub under the rule of Kamehameha the Great, the importance of the area began to increase. Heirs of Kamehameha would later establish their royal residences in Honolulu.

European Contact and Influence

  • First European Contact: The first recorded visit by Europeans was by the British explorer Captain James Cook in 1778. However, it was not until the late 18th and early 19th centuries that European and American ships began to frequently visit Honolulu, particularly for sandalwood.

  • Establishment of Honolulu Harbor: By the early 19th century, Honolulu Harbor, also known as Kulolia, became a vital port for merchant ships. Foreigners began to settle around the harbor and set up businesses to service the whaling industry and sandalwood trade.

The Rise of Honolulu as a Capital

  • Kamehameha I: In the early 1800s, King Kamehameha I began to unify the Hawaiian Islands. He used Honolulu as a central port for his fleet, increasing its prominence.

  • Missionaries and Immigrants: In 1820, the first Christian missionaries arrived and started to establish schools and churches in Honolulu, contributing to significant cultural changes. The mid-19th century also saw the arrival of various immigrant groups, including Chinese, Portuguese, and Filipinos, who contributed to the labor force, especially in the growing sugar industry.

  • Development of the City: During the reigns of Kamehameha II and III, Honolulu officially became the capital of the Hawaiian Kingdom in 1850. The city saw the construction of important buildings such as the ʻIolani Palace and the development of key infrastructure.

Kingdom’s Capital and Modernization

  • Modernization Efforts: King Kamehameha III, who reigned from 1825 to 1854, played a crucial role in modernizing the legal system and government of the Hawaiian Kingdom. He also enacted the Great Mahele in 1848, which changed the land ownership system and allowed private ownership of land.

  • Diplomatic Relations: The Hawaiian Kingdom under Kamehameha III established diplomatic relations with major powers and began to modernize its economy and infrastructure, laying the foundation for the city’s future growth.


Tourism is the backbone of Honolulu’s economy. The city is a major hub for international travelers, especially those from the Asia-Pacific region. Waikiki Beach, Diamond Head, and Pearl Harbor are among the many attractions that draw millions of visitors each year. The tourism industry supports a wide range of jobs in hotels, restaurants, retail, and various service sectors.

Transportation and Logistics:

Honolulu serves as a major transportation and logistics hub in the Pacific due to its strategic location. The city’s economy benefits from the following aspects of transportation and logistics:

  • Port of Honolulu: As the principal port for the Hawaiian Islands, it handles most of the containerized freight that enters the state, which is crucial since Hawaii imports a significant percentage of its consumer goods.
  • Honolulu International Airport: This airport facilitates the flow of goods and travelers, acting as a key connector between the islands and the rest of the world.
  • Inter-Island Transportation: Companies that specialize in moving goods between the Hawaiian Islands also contribute to the local economy.
  • Warehousing and Distribution: The logistics sector includes warehousing and distribution centers necessary to manage the flow of goods throughout the islands.
  • Military Movements: The movement of military personnel and supplies also plays a role in the local transportation and logistics sector.


Tourism’s impact on Honolulu’s local economy is multifaceted:

  • Hospitality: Hotels, resorts, and vacation rentals provide thousands of jobs and generate significant revenue from both domestic and international tourists.
  • Dining and Entertainment: The local economy benefits from a wide array of dining options, bars, clubs, and cultural entertainment that cater to tourists.
  • Retail: From high-end luxury stores in Ala Moana Center to local shops and markets, retail is heavily supported by tourist spending.
  • Cultural and Recreational Attractions: Historical sites like Pearl Harbor, cultural attractions, and natural parks contribute to the economy through entrance fees and associated spending.
  • Tour Services: Guided tours, recreational activities like surfing lessons, snorkeling, and hiking excursions are a significant part of the economy.
  • Conventions and Business Travel: The Hawaii Convention Center in Honolulu hosts events and conferences, drawing business travelers to the city.

In both transportation and tourism, the local economy is supported by a network of small and large businesses, and both sectors require a robust workforce. Investment in infrastructure, marketing, and services aimed at improving the visitor experience can have a direct positive impact on Honolulu’s economy. Additionally, as tourism can fluctuate seasonally and is sensitive to global economic conditions, the city often works on strategies to ensure that it can attract a steady flow of tourists year-round.


The retail sector in Honolulu is a significant contributor to the local economy, serving both the resident population and the city’s large number of visitors. Here are some aspects of how retail impacts the local economy:

  • Shopping Centers: Honolulu is home to several large shopping centers, such as Ala Moana Center, one of the world’s largest open-air shopping malls, which is a significant draw for both locals and tourists.
  • Local Businesses and Boutiques: In addition to big box stores and international brands, Honolulu has a vibrant scene of local boutiques and shops that sell a variety of goods, including Hawaiian crafts, clothing, jewelry, and more. These establishments help to circulate money within the local economy.
  • Sales Tax Revenue: Hawaii has a General Excise Tax (GET) instead of a traditional sales tax, which is levied on all business activities. The retail sector’s transactions contribute substantially to the state’s revenue through the GET.
  • Employment: The retail industry provides employment for a significant portion of Honolulu’s workforce across a range of positions, from entry-level to management.
  • E-Commerce: With the rise of online shopping, local retailers have also ventured into e-commerce, helping to expand their reach beyond the islands and contributing to economic diversification.
  • Cultural Products: The sale of locally made products and traditional Hawaiian items supports indigenous artisans and helps to preserve and promote Hawaiian culture.


Manufacturing in Honolulu, while not as dominant as tourism or the military, still plays a role in the local economy. The manufacturing sector includes:

  • Food Products: Given its isolation from the mainland, Honolulu has a niche market for locally produced food items. This includes coffee, macadamia nuts, chocolates, and processed foods, which are also popular with tourists.
  • Apparel: There is a small but notable sector for Hawaiian apparel, including the iconic Aloha shirts and other clothing items that reflect local culture and fashion.
  • Crafts and Jewelry: Manufacturing also includes the production of authentic Hawaiian crafts, jewelry, and art which are sold both locally and exported.
  • Industrial Products: There are manufacturers that produce building materials, industrial goods, and other products used within the islands and exported to various markets.
  • Innovation and Small-Scale Manufacturing: There are efforts to grow innovative manufacturing sectors in technology, biotech, and clean energy products.

Manufacturing in Honolulu is impacted by high shipping costs, both for importing raw materials and exporting finished goods, due to its geographic isolation. As such, the manufacturing sector often focuses on items that can command a higher price due to their quality, uniqueness, or branding associated with Hawaii. The local government sometimes provides incentives to bolster manufacturing, aiming to diversify the economy and create more resilient supply chains for the island’s needs.

Governance Structure

Honolulu, the capital city of Hawaii, operates under a consolidated city-county form of government. This unique structure combines both municipal and county administrative roles into a single entity. The official name for this jurisdiction is the City and County of Honolulu, and it encompasses not only the city itself but the entire island of Oahu.


At the city level, Honolulu is led by a mayor, who is the chief executive officer of the city and county. The mayor is responsible for overseeing the daily operations of the government, enforcing laws, and implementing policies and programs. The mayor’s office is critical in managing city services such as emergency management, road maintenance, and public utilities.


As a county, Honolulu is governed by the Honolulu City Council, which serves as the legislative body. The City Council is composed of nine members, each representing a different geographical district of Oahu. The Council members are elected to serve four-year terms, and they are responsible for passing ordinances, approving the city’s budget, and setting forth regulations that affect the entire island.

Key Functions and Services

The City and County of Honolulu provide a range of services to its residents, including:

  • Public Safety: This includes the Honolulu Police Department, Honolulu Fire Department, and emergency medical services.
  • Transportation: The city is responsible for maintaining streets, highways, and public transit systems, including TheBus and the Honolulu Rail Transit project, which is currently under construction.
  • Land Management: The Department of Planning and Permitting oversees land use, building codes, and zoning regulations.
  • Parks and Recreation: There are numerous parks, beaches, and recreational facilities managed by the city for public use.
  • Water and Waste: The city provides water supply and sewage systems, as well as waste collection and disposal.
  • Cultural and Community Services: Honolulu also supports libraries, community centers, and cultural events that contribute to the quality of life for its residents.

Challenges and Issues

Like any major urban area, Honolulu faces several challenges such as traffic congestion, affordable housing, and environmental sustainability. The city’s governance must balance the needs of its growing population with the preservation of Hawaii’s natural resources and cultural heritage.

Governance Structure

The governance structure of Honolulu is designed to be responsive to both the city and the broader county needs. The mayor works in conjunction with the City Council, department heads, and various commissions to ensure that the region is well-managed and that the services provided meet the demands of its citizens.

In summary, the governance of Honolulu is characterized by a single entity that handles both city and county functions, with elected officials at various levels working together to serve the needs of the community and address the challenges unique to this Pacific island urban center.

Federal Agencies in Honolulu

Federal agencies operate throughout the United States, including in Honolulu, to execute the mandates of the federal government. These agencies handle a variety of functions ranging from national security to environmental protection. Here are some of the key federal agencies with operations in Honolulu:

Department of Defense (DoD)

The DoD has a significant presence in Honolulu due to Hawaii’s strategic military importance in the Pacific. This includes the U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM), which oversees all military operations in the Asia-Pacific region.

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

The FBI has a field office in Honolulu, which serves as the central hub for federal law enforcement activities across the Hawaiian Islands, including counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigations.

Transportation Security Administration (TSA)

The TSA is responsible for security at Honolulu’s airports, including Daniel K. Inouye International Airport, ensuring the safety of passengers and cargo.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

NOAA operates in Honolulu and is crucial for monitoring the Pacific Ocean’s climate, weather, and marine ecosystems, which is particularly important for an island state like Hawaii.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

The EPA’s Pacific Southwest Region oversees environmental protection efforts in Hawaii, including air and water quality, and waste management.

State Agencies in Honolulu

State agencies execute the laws and policies of the State of Hawaii. They manage state-specific services and regulatory functions. Below are several key state agencies headquartered in Honolulu:

Department of Health (DOH)

The DOH is responsible for public health in Hawaii, including disease control, sanitation, and health promotion.

Department of Education (DOE)

Hawaii’s DOE operates the state’s public school system and is one of the few statewide educational systems in the United States.

Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR)

The DLNR manages Hawaii’s natural and cultural resources, encompassing state parks, wildlife, and historical sites.

Department of Transportation (DOT)

Hawaii’s DOT is in charge of maintaining and improving the state’s transportation infrastructure, including highways, airports, and harbors.

Department of Public Safety (DPS)

The DPS is responsible for law enforcement, corrections, and narcotics enforcement within the state.

Hawaii Tourism Authority (HTA)

The HTA is tasked with overseeing the state’s tourism industry, promoting Hawaii as a travel destination, and ensuring the sustainability of the industry.

Each of these agencies plays a critical role in the governance and administration of Honolulu and the greater state of Hawaii. They work in conjunction with federal agencies to manage resources, provide services, and ensure the welfare of the residents and environment of Honolulu.

Location and Surroundings

Honolulu is the capital and largest city of the state of Hawaii, situated on the island of Oahu, one of the Pacific archipelago’s eight major islands. As a vital cultural and economic center, it is known for its beautiful landscape, strategic location, and unique blend of Eastern and Western influences alongside native Hawaiian culture.

Landscape of Honolulu

Honolulu is characterized by a diverse and dramatic landscape that includes coastal plains, volcanic ridges, and lush valleys. Here are some of the key features of Honolulu’s landscape:

  • Waikiki Beach: Perhaps the most famous beach in the world, Waikiki is a hub of tourist activity and urban development, set against the backdrop of the dormant volcano Diamond Head (Leahi).
  • Diamond Head: This iconic crater is a defining feature of Honolulu’s landscape and offers panoramic views of the city and Pacific Ocean.
  • Ko’olau Range: A steep, jagged mountain range that dominates the eastern side of Oahu, providing a lush, green contrast to the urban development.
  • Waianae Range: Located on the western side of Oahu, this mountain range is older, with more eroded peaks compared to the Ko’olau Range.
  • Manoa Valley: Known for its rainforests, waterfalls, and the University of Hawaii’s main campus, this valley is a picturesque area that captures the essence of Honolulu’s natural beauty.
  • Ala Moana Beach Park: A half-mile beach park located between Waikiki and downtown Honolulu, popular for recreation and relaxation.
  • Pearl Harbor: A natural deepwater naval port on the southern coast, it is also the site of the 1941 attack that brought the United States into World War II.

The landscape of Honolulu is a mix of urban development and natural beauty, with the city’s infrastructure skillfully integrated into its tropical setting.

Climate of Honolulu

Honolulu enjoys a tropical semi-arid climate, with a distinct dry season during the summer and a wetter season in the winter. Due to its location in the Pacific Ocean and its varied topography, the city experiences microclimates, where weather conditions can vary significantly over short distances. Here are some climate characteristics:

  • Temperature: The climate is generally warm throughout the year, with average high temperatures ranging from about 80°F (27°C) to 89°F (32°C) and lows from 65°F (18°C) to 75°F (24°C). The temperature rarely goes above 90°F (32°C) or below 60°F (16°C).
  • Precipitation: Rainfall patterns are heavily influenced by the mountains and the trade winds. The Ko’olau Range receives more rainfall, while the leeward side, where Honolulu is located, is relatively drier. Annual rainfall in the city averages around 17 inches (430 mm), but it can be much higher in the nearby mountainous areas.
  • Trade Winds: The prevailing northeast trade winds provide a cooling effect for most of the year, making the climate quite pleasant despite the warm temperatures.
  • Hurricanes: While hurricanes are relatively rare, the region’s hurricane season runs from June through November, with the greatest likelihood of storms typically in the latter half of the season.

The climate and landscape of Honolulu combine to create a pleasant environment that is one of the city’s greatest attractions, fostering outdoor activities and a laid-back lifestyle that is synonymous with the Hawaiian experience.

Unique Geographical Features

Honolulu is graced with several unique geographical features that contribute to its distinct identity and appeal, both as a tourist destination and as a place of residence. Here are some of those features:

Diamond Head (Leahi)

This iconic tuff crater is a symbol of Hawaii and a landmark of Honolulu. Diamond Head is a saucer-shaped crater formed around 300,000 years ago during a single, explosive eruption that sent ash and fine particles into the air. These materials cemented together into a rock called tuff, creating the crater. It is a United States State Monument and a popular hiking destination with sweeping views of the Pacific Ocean and Honolulu.

Waikiki Beach

Waikiki is a world-renowned beach, famous for its long stretch of sandy shore, gentle waves, and view of Diamond Head. It is a hub for tourists and surfers and has been a popular retreat since the era of Hawaiian royalty.

Hanauma Bay

This is a natural bay formed within a tuff ring and is known for its stunning marine ecosystem. It has become a popular snorkeling spot to observe tropical fish and coral reefs in a protected nature preserve.

Koolau and Waianae Mountain Ranges

These two mountain ranges run parallel to each other on the island of Oahu. The Koolau range on the windward side of the island is known for its dramatic cliffs and lush vegetation, a result of the orographic effect where the prevailing trade winds bring moisture that rises and cools along the mountains, leading to high rainfall. The Waianae range on the leeward side is older, with more eroded and rounded peaks.

Manoa and Palolo Valleys

These are rainforest valleys located just inland of Waikiki and Honolulu. They are known for their lush, tropical scenery, waterfalls, and misty microclimates. Manoa Valley is home to the Lyon Arboretum and the University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Ala Wai Canal

This man-made canal was constructed to drain the wetlands and expand usable land for the development of Waikiki. It runs between the Waikiki neighborhood and the rest of Honolulu, serving as an important flood control mechanism.

Pearl Harbor

A natural deepwater naval port on the southern coast of Oahu, Pearl Harbor’s geography made it a strategic location for the United States’ Pacific Fleet and was the site of the infamous World War II attack.

Chinaman’s Hat (Mokolii)

This is a small island off Oahu’s Windward Coast near Kualoa Ranch. The island’s cone shape resembles the traditional peasant’s hat worn in rural China, hence its nickname. It is a popular spot for photos and kayaking.

These features, combined with Honolulu’s location on the Pacific Rim, contribute to the city’s strategic importance and its rich ecological and cultural diversity. The interplay of natural beauty and urban development makes Honolulu’s geography unique and fascinating.

Real Estate

Real estate in Honolulu, Hawaii, is known for its high value and desirability, due to the city’s stunning natural beauty, warm climate, and vibrant culture. Here’s an overview of the real estate scene in Honolulu:

Local Housing Market in Honolulu

The local housing market in Honolulu is often characterized by limited inventory and high demand, which can lead to relatively high property values. The market trends can be influenced by various factors including tourism rates, the local economy, and global economic conditions.

Market Dynamics

  • Inventory: There may be limited availability of new listings, which is common in island communities with finite land for development.
  • Prices: Housing prices in Honolulu tend to be higher than the national average due to the desirability of the location and the premium on space.
  • Sales: The market can be competitive, with properties in high-demand areas selling quickly, sometimes above asking price.
  • Seasonality: Real estate activity can fluctuate with the seasons, often peaking when tourism is highest.

Mix of Housing Types

Honolulu offers a variety of housing types to cater to different preferences and budgets:

  • Single-Family Homes: These are available, but they can be expensive, especially in neighborhoods close to the beach or with views of the ocean or Diamond Head.
  • Condominiums: Condos are a popular choice in Honolulu and may offer a more affordable entry point into the housing market. They are prevalent in the Waikiki area and throughout the downtown and surrounding urban areas.
  • Townhouses: These properties offer a middle ground between single-family homes and condos, often providing more space than a typical condo.
  • Luxury Properties: There are exclusive areas with high-end homes and estates that command premium prices, especially in neighborhoods like Kahala, Diamond Head, and Hawaii Loa Ridge.
  • Historic Homes: In certain areas, there are homes with historical significance, which can be attractive to buyers interested in the local history and architecture.

Rental Costs

Rental costs in Honolulu can be quite high compared to many other cities in the United States, again reflecting the high demand and limited supply:

  • Apartments: Studio and one-bedroom apartments, especially in central areas like Waikiki or downtown Honolulu, can be expensive. Prices vary widely based on location, amenities, and the age of the building.
  • Larger Rentals: Two-bedroom or larger units, including houses for rent, will come at a significant premium. Rentals with views, outdoor space, or in more exclusive neighborhoods can be especially costly.
  • Short-Term Rentals: There’s a robust market for vacation rentals, and prices can be higher for short-term leases or furnished properties.


Honolulu, with its stunning natural landscapes and favorable climate, offers a plethora of recreational activities that cater to a wide range of interests. Here’s a glimpse of recreational opportunities in and around Honolulu:

Parks and Outdoor Recreation in Honolulu

Honolulu is home to a variety of parks and natural areas that offer a range of outdoor recreational opportunities:

Beach Parks

  • Waikiki Beach: One of the most famous beaches in the world, it’s a hub for swimming, surfing, and sunbathing.
  • Ala Moana Beach Park: A favorite for locals, this park has a wide beach, calm waters protected by a reef, and plenty of picnic areas.
  • Hanauma Bay Nature Preserve: A stunning snorkeling location in a volcanic crater with a diverse array of marine life.

State and National Parks

  • Diamond Head State Monument: Offers hiking trails leading to the crater’s summit with panoramic views of the Honolulu coastline.
  • Kapiolani Park: The oldest and largest public park in Hawaii, it features wide open spaces, sports fields, and the Honolulu Zoo.

Hiking and Trails

  • Manoa Falls Trail: A popular hike to a spectacular waterfall located in a lush rainforest.
  • Lanikai Pillbox Hike (Kaiwa Ridge Trail): A short, steep trail that offers breathtaking views of the Windward Coast and the Mokulua Islands.
  • Aiea Loop Trail: A scenic hike in Keaiwa Heiau State Recreation Area that loops through forested areas with views of Pearl Harbor.

Water Activities

  • Kayaking and Paddleboarding: Paddle in the calm waters of Kailua Beach or the iconic Waikiki.
  • Sailing and Boat Tours: Enjoy the waters around Honolulu by taking a catamaran cruise, especially beautiful at sunset.

Gardens and Nature Centers

  • Foster Botanical Garden: Displays a mature and impressive collection of tropical plants.
  • Lyon Arboretum: Located in Manoa Valley, it offers a peaceful retreat with over 5,000 tropical species.

Museums and Historical Sites in Honolulu

Honolulu is rich in cultural and historical sites, providing many opportunities for educational and recreational experiences:


  • Bishop Museum: The state museum of natural and cultural history offers extensive exhibits on Hawaiian history, culture, and the natural sciences.
  • Honolulu Museum of Art: Features a collection of art pieces ranging from traditional Asian and Hawaiian art to contemporary works.
  • Iolani Palace: The only royal palace on US soil, it provides a unique look into the history of the Hawaiian monarchy.

Historical Sites

  • Pearl Harbor National Memorial: Includes the USS Arizona Memorial, USS Missouri Battleship, USS Bowfin Submarine Museum & Park, and the Pearl Harbor Aviation Museum.
  • King Kamehameha Statue: Located in front of the Aliiolani Hale, the statue honors the first king who unified the Hawaiian Islands.
  • Chinatown Historic District: Offers a blend of cultural history, markets, specialty shops, and temples.

Cultural Centers

  • Polynesian Cultural Center: Located on the North Shore, it showcases the cultures of Polynesia with villages, performances, and exhibits.
  • Shangri La Museum of Islamic Art, Culture & Design: The former estate of heiress Doris Duke, it houses an extensive collection of Islamic art.

Honolulu’s combination of natural beauty, outdoor recreational opportunities, and rich cultural history provides residents and visitors with an array of choices to enjoy in their leisure time. Whether you’re looking to explore the great outdoors, learn about history, or appreciate art, Honolulu has something to offer everyone.

Theaters and Arts in Honolulu

Honolulu is a hub for various forms of performing arts, ranging from traditional Hawaiian performances to modern theater and concerts.


  • Hawaii Theatre: Known as the “Pride of the Pacific,” this historic theater hosts concerts, film festivals, and live performances ranging from ballet to traditional Hawaiian shows.
  • Diamond Head Theatre: Often called “The Broadway of the Pacific,” it offers a season of musical theater productions.
  • Neal S. Blaisdell Center: This complex includes a concert hall, exhibition hall, and arena that host a variety of events, including operas, symphonies, and Broadway tours.

Art Galleries and Exhibitions

  • Honolulu Museum of Art Spalding House: Features contemporary art exhibitions and programs.
  • The ARTS at Marks Garage: A community arts center that showcases visual arts exhibitions, performances, and film screenings.
  • Koa Gallery: Located at the Kapiolani Community College, it exhibits work by local artists and students.

Sports Facilities in Honolulu

Sports enthusiasts can find various facilities catering to both participants and spectators in Honolulu.

Stadiums and Arenas

  • Aloha Stadium: Used for football, soccer, concerts, and the Swap Meet & Marketplace.
  • Stan Sheriff Center: Located on the University of Hawaii campus, it hosts university basketball and volleyball games.

Recreational Sports Facilities

  • Ala Moana Beach Park: Popular for stand-up paddleboarding, surfing, tennis, and jogging.
  • Kapiolani Park: Offers tennis courts, soccer fields, and an archery range.

Golf Courses

  • Ala Wai Golf Course: Right on the edge of Waikiki, this is one of the busiest courses in the world, known for its views of Diamond Head.
  • Ko Olina Golf Club: A bit further from Honolulu, this is a beautiful resort course frequented by both tourists and locals.

Events and Festivals in Honolulu

Honolulu’s calendar is filled with diverse cultural events and festivals that reflect the city’s multicultural heritage.

Cultural Festivals

  • Aloha Festivals: A statewide celebration of Hawaiian culture, featuring a floral parade, music, dance, and history.
  • Honolulu Festival: Promotes cultural understanding between Hawaii and the Asia-Pacific region with performances, parades, and fireworks.

Music and Dance

  • Hawaii International Jazz Festival: Showcases local and international jazz artists.
  • Merrie Monarch Festival: Held annually in Hilo on the Big Island, it’s the world’s premier hula competition, with related events in Honolulu.

Film Festivals

  • Hawaii International Film Festival (HIFF): Celebrates film as a medium for cultural exchange and a window into the Asia-Pacific region.

Food Festivals

  • Hawaii Food & Wine Festival: Features a roster of over 100 internationally-renowned master chefs, culinary personalities, and wine and spirit producers.

Sporting Events

  • Honolulu Marathon: One of the largest marathons in the world, attracting runners from all over the globe.
  • Triple Crown of Surfing: While based on the North Shore of Oahu, it’s a significant event for the surfing community in Honolulu.

These theaters, arts venues, sports facilities, events, and festivals contribute to Honolulu’s lively atmosphere and provide residents and visitors with countless opportunities to engage with the community and enjoy the city’s cultural richness.


Transportation in Honolulu is critical for residents, commuters, and tourists alike, as it connects various parts of the city and the island of Oahu. Here’s a breakdown of the main modes of transportation available in Honolulu:

Highways in Honolulu

Honolulu is located on the island of Oahu, where a network of highways and major roads connect different parts of the city and island. Here are some of the key highways:

  • H-1 Freeway: The main interstate highway running from west to east, connecting Kapolei, through Honolulu, to the eastern neighborhood of Hawaii Kai.
  • H-2 Freeway: Branches off from H-1 and heads north towards the communities of Mililani and Wahiawa, eventually reaching the North Shore.
  • H-3 Freeway: Connects the windward side of the island, starting from Kaneohe, through the Ko’olau Mountains, and down to Halawa near Pearl Harbor, joining with H-1.
  • Pali Highway (Route 61): This route takes travelers from downtown Honolulu over the mountains to the windward side, arriving in Kailua.
  • Likelike Highway (Route 63): Another route connecting Honolulu to the windward side, running through the Wilson Tunnel to Kaneohe.
  • Kalakaua Avenue: A major thoroughfare in Waikiki, known for its shopping, dining, and entertainment options.

Public Transit

Honolulu’s public transit system primarily consists of an extensive bus network and an emerging rail system:

  • TheBus: Operated by the Oahu Transit Services, TheBus is Honolulu’s primary mode of public transportation. It offers extensive routes that cover most areas of the island, including major residential neighborhoods, downtown Honolulu, tourist destinations, shopping centers, and transfer hubs. The bus is equipped with facilities to accommodate bicycles and is accessible to passengers with disabilities.

  • TheHandi-Van: A complementary paratransit service that provides door-to-door transportation for eligible riders who have disabilities that prevent them from using the fixed-route bus service.

  • Honolulu Rail Transit (HART): A new, driverless, elevated rail system currently under construction, aiming to connect East Kapolei with Ala Moana Center. It is designed to provide an alternative to road traffic for commuters traveling along the island’s south shore. The first phase of the rail is expected to start operations shortly, with subsequent phases opening as they are completed.

  • Biki: For short trips within the urban core, Biki, Honolulu’s bike share program, offers a network of self-service stations where bikes can be rented for quick rides around town.

For visitors and those without a car, TheBus and other transit services are crucial for getting around, especially considering the traffic congestion often experienced on Honolulu’s highways. The development of the rail system is anticipated to significantly impact the ease of commuting in the future.

Bike Paths in Honolulu

Honolulu has been developing its bicycle infrastructure to encourage more residents and visitors to cycle, both for commuting and recreation. Here’s an overview of the bike paths and related facilities:

  • King Street Cycle Track: A two-way protected bike lane on King Street, providing a safe corridor for cyclists traveling to and from the downtown area.
  • South King Street Bike Lane: Another bike lane on South King Street, though this one is not protected by a physical barrier.
  • Waikiki: There are various bike lanes and shared paths throughout Waikiki, making it easier to navigate the area on two wheels.
  • Kapiolani Boulevard: Features bike lanes that connect with the King Street Cycle Track, creating a more extensive network.
  • Ke Ala Pupukea Bike Path: This path is on the North Shore and offers a scenic ride along the coastline, away from the busy Kamehameha Highway.
  • Pearl Harbor Historic Trail: Also known as the Pearl Harbor Bike Path, this path runs along the harbor’s edge and offers views of the USS Arizona Memorial and other historic sites.

The city also provides bike racks on buses, allowing cyclists to combine biking with public transit to cover longer distances.

Airports in Honolulu

Honolulu is served primarily by one major airport, with a couple of smaller airfields catering to general aviation and military use:

  • Daniel K. Inouye International Airport (HNL): Located in the western part of Honolulu, this is the main gateway to the state of Hawaii and one of the busiest airports in the United States. It handles international and domestic flights, including inter-island service.
  • Kalaeloa Airport (JRF): Also known as John Rodgers Field and formerly the Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Kalaeloa Airport is a reliever airport for HNL and serves general aviation flights. It is located in Kapolei, about 15 miles west of Honolulu’s central business district.
  • Ford Island NALF (NPS): This is a military airfield located on Ford Island in Pearl Harbor and primarily serves military operations.

For most travelers, Daniel K. Inouye International Airport is the primary point of arrival and departure. It offers a range of services and transportation options, including car rentals, shuttles, taxis, and TheBus, which provides public transit to various parts of the island, including Waikiki and downtown Honolulu. The airport is also in proximity to the H-1 Freeway, providing convenient access for those traveling by car.

Train Stations in Honolulu

The Honolulu Rail Transit project is under construction, to provide an efficient and reliable alternative to road traffic. Once completed, the rail transit system will feature multiple stations along its route, including:

  • East Kapolei Station: Serving as a starting point in the west.
  • Pearlridge Station: Located near the Pearlridge Center, a major shopping mall.
  • Aloha Stadium Station: Providing access to the sports and event venue.
  • Pearl Harbor Naval Base Station: For military personnel and authorized visitors.
  • Honolulu International Airport Station: Offering easy access to and from Daniel K. Inouye International Airport.
  • Downtown Honolulu Station: Located in the heart of the business district.
  • Kakaako Station: Serving a growing residential and commercial neighborhood.
  • Ala Moana Center Station: The planned terminus near the largest shopping center in Hawaii.

Each station is expected to have amenities to facilitate passenger comfort and accessibility, including parking in some locations, bike racks, and connections to bus services for onward travel.

Bus Stations in Honolulu

The primary mode of public transportation in Honolulu is the bus service known as TheBus. There are several key bus transit centers and stops throughout the city:

  • Alapai Transit Center: This is a major hub for TheBus and is located close to downtown Honolulu. It features multiple bus bays and serves as a transfer point for several routes.
  • Kalihi Transit Center: Located outside of downtown, this center serves as another important transit hub for routes that service the eastern part of the island.
  • University of Hawaii at Manoa: A significant amount of bus traffic caters to the University, with various stops around the campus serving as key points for students and staff.
  • Waikiki: Numerous bus stops are strategically placed throughout Waikiki, catering to both tourists and local commuters.

TheBus stations are generally well-marked, with shelters and posted schedules. Many stops also have real-time arrival information displays. For those needing to travel between different parts of the island or to specific locations within Honolulu, TheBus provides an extensive network of routes that operate seven days a week, including holidays.


Honolulu, the vibrant capital of Hawaii, is a popular tourist destination known for its beautiful beaches, cultural sites, and outdoor activities. Here’s a visitor’s guide to some key aspects of planning a trip to Honolulu:

When to Visit Honolulu

Best Times to Visit:

  • Peak Season (December to April): This is when the weather is typically very pleasant, and it’s also the peak of whale-watching season. However, expect larger crowds and higher prices.
  • Shoulder Season (May and September to November): These months offer a good balance with fewer tourists, generally good weather, and more competitive rates for accommodations.
  • Off-Peak Season (June to August): Summer can be hotter and more humid, but it’s also a time when families prefer to visit due to school vacations. It is also a good time for surfing on the south shore of the island.

Weather Considerations:

  • Honolulu has a tropical climate with only two seasons, the dry season (April to October) and the wet season (November to March). Even during the wet season, rain showers are often brief and can be followed by sunshine.

Getting There

By Air:

  • Daniel K. Inouye International Airport (HNL): Most visitors arrive in Honolulu by air. HNL is the main gateway to the Hawaiian Islands and is well connected to destinations across the globe.

Inter-Island Travel:

  • If you plan to visit other islands, there are frequent inter-island flights from HNL.

By Sea:

  • Cruise Ships: Honolulu is also a popular stop for cruise ships that tour the Hawaiian Islands and the Pacific.

Attractions in Honolulu

Cultural and Historical Sites:

  • Pearl Harbor National Memorial: Visit the USS Arizona Memorial and other historic sites.
  • Iolani Palace: The only royal palace on US soil, the former residence of the Hawaiian monarchs.
  • Bishop Museum: Offers extensive collections of Hawaiian artifacts and natural history specimens.

Natural Attractions:

  • Waikiki Beach: Probably the most famous beach in Hawaii, known for its golden sand and excellent conditions for surfing and swimming.
  • Diamond Head State Monument: Hike up this iconic crater for panoramic views of the city.
  • Hanauma Bay Nature Preserve: A stunning snorkeling spot with a diverse array of marine life.

Outdoor Activities:

  • Surfing and Water Sports: With its beautiful beaches, Honolulu is perfect for surfing, paddleboarding, and kayaking.
  • Hiking: There are numerous trails for all skill levels, from the leisurely Manoa Falls hike to the challenging Koko Head Crater Trail.

Shopping and Entertainment:

  • Ala Moana Center: The largest open-air shopping center in the world.
  • Chinatown: Explore the markets, art galleries, and eateries in this historic district.
  • Local Cuisine: Don’t miss trying local dishes like poke, shave ice, and plate lunch.


  • Spas: Many hotels offer spa services where you can enjoy traditional Hawaiian Lomi Lomi massages.
  • Sunset Cruises: A romantic way to end the day with views of the city and the ocean.

Events and Festivals:

  • Aloha Festivals: An annual series of cultural celebrations held across the islands.
  • King Kamehameha Celebration Floral Parade: A colorful parade held in June in honor of the Hawaiian king.

Accommodations in Honolulu

Options Varying by Budget and Preference:

  • Luxury Hotels: Honolulu boasts several high-end resorts, particularly in Waikiki, offering premium amenities, fine dining, and spa services. Examples include The Royal Hawaiian, Moana Surfrider, and the Halekulani.
  • Mid-Range Hotels: There are many chain and boutique hotels that provide comfortable accommodations with fewer luxury amenities at a moderate price.
  • Budget-Friendly: For those looking to stretch their dollars, options include budget hotels, hostels, and vacation rentals like Airbnb.
  • Resorts: For a more inclusive experience, resorts often offer packages that may include meals, activities, and special events.
  • Vacation Rentals: Renting condos or vacation homes can be a good choice for families or groups, providing more space and kitchen facilities.

Location Considerations:

  • Waikiki: The most popular area for tourists, close to beaches, shopping, and dining.
  • Downtown Honolulu: More business-oriented but offers easier access to cultural sites like Iolani Palace and the arts district.
  • Ko Olina: A resort area on the west side of Oahu, offering quieter, more upscale accommodations.
  • North Shore: Ideal for those looking for a laid-back vibe and proximity to some of the world’s best surfing spots.

Dining in Honolulu

Culinary Experiences:

  • Fine Dining: Enjoy high-end restaurants with renowned chefs offering both international and Hawaiian fusion cuisine.
  • Casual Eateries: There are countless casual dining spots serving everything from traditional Hawaiian food to diverse international fare.
  • Food Trucks: Scattered around the island, food trucks offer delicious options, particularly for fresh seafood and local specialties.
  • Farmers’ Markets: A great place to sample local produce and artisanal foods. The KCC Farmers’ Market is one of the largest and most popular.

Local Dishes to Try:

  • Poke: Raw fish salad, usually seasoned with soy sauce, sesame oil, and green onions.
  • Lomi Lomi Salmon: A side dish made from fresh tomato and salmon.
  • Kalua Pig: Traditionally cooked in an underground oven called an imu.
  • Haupia: A coconut milk-based dessert.

Dietary Preferences:

  • Vegetarian, vegan, and gluten-free options are increasingly available in restaurants and eateries.

Shopping in Honolulu

Diverse Shopping Destinations:

  • Ala Moana Center: The world’s largest open-air shopping center with over 350 stores and restaurants.
  • Waikiki: Home to luxury brand stores, boutiques, and souvenir shops along Kalakaua Avenue.
  • Chinatown: Offers unique boutiques, art galleries, and local markets.
  • Ward Village: A shopping district with a mix of local shops and national brands.

Local Products and Souvenirs:

  • Hawaiian Jewelry: Look for pieces with traditional motifs like the Hawaiian heirloom jewelry.
  • Koa Wood Products: From furniture to small keepsakes, items made from native koa wood are popular.
  • Aloha Wear: Clothing items like the aloha shirt and muumuu dresses.
  • Local Food Items: Coffee from local plantations, macadamia nuts, and chocolates are great to take home.

Shopping Tips:

  • Tax Refund: As a U.S. state, Hawaii does not offer tax refund opportunities for tourists like some countries do, but the general sales tax rate is relatively low compared to other U.S. states.
  • Support Local: Consider buying from local artisans and markets to support the local economy.

Events in Honolulu

Honolulu hosts a variety of events throughout the year, celebrating everything from Hawaiian culture and music to international film and food. Here are some notable events that you might consider timing your visit to coincide with:

  • Honolulu Festival (March): A weekend-long cultural celebration featuring a parade, traditional art demonstrations, and dance performances representing various Pacific cultures.
  • Merrie Monarch Festival (April): The world’s premier hula competition, held on the Big Island, but it influences related events in Honolulu, including hula performances and Hawaiian art sales.
  • Lei Day (May 1st): A statewide celebration of Hawaiian culture, particularly the lei, featuring lei-making competitions, concerts, and exhibits.
  • King Kamehameha Day (June 11th): A public holiday in Hawaii with floral parades, hula, and music, particularly grand in Honolulu with a parade and various festivities.
  • Lantern Floating Hawaii (Memorial Day): A beautiful ceremony at Ala Moana Beach Park where thousands of lanterns are set afloat to honor loved ones who have passed away.
  • Hawaii International Film Festival (HIFF) (November): A premier film festival showcasing films from the Pacific Rim, offering a unique blend of East meets West.
  • Aloha Festivals (September): This month-long celebration of Hawaiian heritage features a royal court, music, dance, and a floral parade through Waikiki.
  • Honolulu City Lights (December): A month-long holiday celebration with a tree lighting ceremony, displays, and a parade, making downtown Honolulu a festive place to be.

Outdoor Activities in Honolulu

Honolulu offers a myriad of outdoor activities for all ages and interests due to its stunning natural landscapes and favorable climate. Here are some popular outdoor activities:

  • Beach Activities: Enjoy sunbathing, swimming, and beach sports on Waikiki Beach or discover more secluded beaches around the island like Lanikai Beach or Hanauma Bay for snorkeling.
  • Surfing: Take a lesson or hit the waves at famous spots like Waikiki, Ala Moana Bowls, and Diamond Head.
  • Hiking: Explore trails like the Manoa Falls Trail, Diamond Head Summit Trail, or for more experienced hikers, the Koko Crater Trail.
  • Snorkeling and Diving: Encounter Hawaii’s rich marine life at spots like Hanauma Bay, Shark’s Cove, and Electric Beach.
  • Sailing and Cruises: Book a catamaran cruise, sailing trip, or even a whale-watching tour during the season (December to May).
  • Kayaking and Paddleboarding: Paddle in the calmer waters of Kailua Bay or the Ala Wai Canal.
  • Biking: Rent a bike and ride around the city or in specific areas like Kapiolani Park.
  • Golfing: Play a round at one of Honolulu’s scenic golf courses, such as Ala Wai Golf Course or the Ko’olau Golf Club.
  • Fishing: Join a deep-sea fishing charter for the chance to catch marlin, tuna, and other big game fish.
  • Parasailing and Jet Skiing: For an adrenaline rush, try parasailing or jet skiing off Waikiki Beach.
  • Botanical Gardens: Visit the Foster Botanical Garden, Liliuokalani Botanical Garden, or the Hoomaluhia Botanical Garden for a leisurely walk among native and exotic plants.